PRC mtg June 17

CW is 175 years old and going strong

I’ve never regretted that when I was introduced to amateur radio in 1961, Morse Code was a requirement. I never questioned it. As a kid I thought Morse Code was the language of fighter pilots, soldiers, and hams everywhere! CW quickly became my go to mode, especially when the bands are noisy or “just not working.”

I think you’ll enjoy this informative article by Eddie King, PhD on The Conversation and in the Washington Post.

The first message sent by Morse code’s dots and dashes across a long distance traveled from Washington, D.C., to Baltimore on Friday, May 24, 1844 – 175 years ago. It signaled the first time in human history that complex thoughts could be communicated at long distances almost instantaneously. Until then, people had to have face-to-face conversations; send coded messages through drumssmoke signals and semaphore systems; or read printed words.

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Samuel F.B. Morse. Library of Congress

Thanks to Samuel F.B. Morse, (Samuel Finley Breese Morse, ed.) communication changed rapidly, and has been changing ever faster since. He invented the electric telegraph in 1832. It took six more years for him to standardize a code for communicating over telegraph wires. In 1843, Congress gave him US$30,000 to string wires between the nation’s capital and nearby Baltimore. When the line was completed, he conducted a public demonstration of long-distance communication.

Morse wasn’t the only one working to develop a means of communicating over the telegraph, but his is the one that has survived. The wires, magnets and keys used in the initial demonstration have given way to smartphones’ on-screen keyboards, but Morse code has remained fundamentally the same, and is still – perhaps surprisingly – relevant in the 21st century. Although I have learned, and relearned, it many times as a Boy Scout, an amateur radio operator and a pilot, I continue to admire it and strive to master it.

Easy sending

Morse’s key insight in constructing the code was considering how frequently each letter is used in English. The most commonly used letters have shorter symbols: “E,” which appears most often, is signified by a single “dot.” By contrast, “Z,” the least used letter in English, was signified by the much longer and more complex “dot-dot-dot (pause) dot.”

In 1865, the International Telecommunications Union changed the codeto account for different character frequencies in other languages. There have been other tweaks since, but “E” is still “dot,” though “Z” is now “dash-dash-dot-dot.”

The reference to letter frequency makes for extremely efficient communications: Simple words with common letters can be transmitted very quickly. Longer words can still be sent, but they take more time.

Going wireless

The communications system that Morse code was designed for – analogue connections over metal wires that carried a lot of interference and needed a clear on-off type signal to be heard – has evolved significantly.

The first big change came just a few decades after Morse’s demonstration. In the late 19th century, Guglielmo Marconi invented radio-telegraph equipment, which could send Morse code over radio waves, rather than wires.

The shipping industry loved this new way to communicate with ships at sea, either from ship to ship or to shore-based stations. By 1910, U.S. law required many passenger ships in U.S. waters to carry wireless sets for sending and receiving messages.

After the Titanic sank in 1912, an international agreement required some ships to assign a person to listen for radio distress signals at all times. That same agreement designated “SOS” – “dot-dot-dot dash-dash-dash dot-dot-dot” – as the international distress signal, not as an abbreviation for anything but because it was a simple pattern that was easy to remember and transmit. The Coast Guard discontinued monitoring in 1995. The requirement that ships monitor for distress signals was removed in 1999, though the U.S. Navy still teaches at least some sailors to read, send and receive Morse code.

See Eddie King, PhD’s complete article at https://theconversation.com/simply-elegant-morse-code-marks-175-years-and-counting-117069

Field Day 2019 is coming soon

Field Day is June 22-23th this year and once again we’ll be at Top O’ the Ledges in the Hinckley Reservation of the Cleveland Metroparks. Set up time will be 10 am on June 23rd with operation beginning at 2 pm. At our previous meeting we made a good start at working out our plans to insure another great event. Join us on the 17th to finalize the plans.

Hal Rogers, K8CMD President, Communications Director